thebonds ad theBonds
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December 7, 2019
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Mbega akaga, ibi byerekana ko isi igeze kure ishira.

Ibintu bitandatu ushobora kuba utari uzi ko biri gushira ku isi byerekana ko isi nayo iri ku musozo.

Iyi nkuru yegeranyijwe ivuye mu kiganiro cya BBC radio 4 (yumvikana mu Bwongereza).Ubucye bw’ibintu bimwe na bimwe ni ikintu dukomeje kugenda duhura nacyo mu buryo butubangamiye.

Ushobora kuba warumvise ukuntu amazi akomeje kugenda agabanuka, ibikomoka kuri peteroli ndetse n’inzuki zikora ubuki.

Ariko hari n’ibindi biri kugenda biducikaho, cyangwa tubivuze mu bundi buryo bworoshye, turi gucunga nabi bigatuma bigenda bicika.

Ibi bigira ingaruka kuri buri gice cy’ubuzima bwacu.

Dore bitandatu ushobora kuba utari uzi:

1. Umwanya ukikije isi

Umubumbe w'isi, igice kiwukikije cyuzuyemo imvange y'ibintu bitandukanye
Image captionIbintu bigongana mu gice gikikije isi bishobora kwangiza iminara ducyenera ngo telefone zacu zikore

Kugeza ubu muri uyu mwaka wa 2019, hari ibintu birenga 500,000 biri mu mwanya ukikije isi.

Muri byo ibigera hafi ku 2,000 mu by’ukuri bifite akazi bikora – imibumbe igaragiye isi dukoresha buri munsi mu itumanaho, mu buryo bwa GPS ndetse no mu kureba ibiganiro dukunda kuri televiziyo.

Ibisigaye ni ibisigazwa bivuye mu kohereza ibyogajuru mu isanzure ndetse n’ibivuye ku igongana ry’ibintu mu gice gikikije umubumbe w’isi.

None ikibazo kiri hehe? Uwo mubare w’ibintu birenga 500,000 biri mu mwanya ukikije isi, ni umubare w’ibintu gusa biri kugenzurwa – kandi ibindi bishya byoherezwa buri munsi.

Uko ikoranabuhanga rigenda ritera imbere, biri kugenda birushaho koroha kohereza ikintu muri uwo mwanya ukikije isi.

Nubwo ibyo muri rusange ari inkuru nziza kuri twe nk’ibiremwa, nta genzura ry’umwuka wo muri ibyo bintu byose binagana hejuru y’uyu mubumbe wacu.

Ndetse nta n’uburyo buhari bwo gusukura aho hantu hari ibyo bisigazwa bidakenewe, byegereye isi.

Uko ibi bintu birushaho kwiyongera, ibyago byuko ibyo bisigazwa byagongana bigateza ibyago bikomeye birushaho kuba ku kigero cyo hejuru.

Nubwo hari ibikorwa byo gushakira umuti iki kibazo, kuri ubu uwo muti ntawo dufite.

2. Umucanga

Ikirundo cy'umucanga mu butayu
Image captionTuri gukoresha umucanga byihuse cyane kurusha uko isi ishobora kuwusimbuza undi mushya

Ushobora gutekereza ko ari ugukabya – ni gute dushobora gushirirwa n’umucanga mu gihe dufite imyaro y’inyanja n’ibiyaga ndetse n’ubutayu bwuzuye uwo mucanga?

Ariko, ukuri ni uko umucanga ari cyo kintu gikomeye (‘solide’) gicukurwa cyane ku isi – cyo kimwe n’amabuye yo mu bwoko bwa ‘gravier’.

Abantu tu kuwucukura byihuse cyane kurusha uko isi, muri kamere yayo, ishobora gusimbuza uwo twacukuye, nkuko bitangazwa n’umuryango w’abibumbye (ONU).

Mu gihe umara imyaka ibarirwa mu bihumbi ngo uboneke uvuye ku isuri, umucanga ukoreshwa cyane buri munsi mu bwubatsi.

Ukoreshwa kandi mu buryo bwo kumutsa amazi magari hashakwa ubutaka bushya (bizwi nka ‘land reclamation’) no mu kuyungurura amazi, ndetse no gufatisha ibirahuri ku madirishya y’inzu, no muri za telefone zigendanwa.

Mu gihe ukubura umucanga byugarije urusobe rw’ibinyabuzima, hakomeje gusabwa ko hajyaho ikigo cy’isi cyo kugenzura ukwiyongera kw’ikoreshwa ry’umucanga.

3. Umwuka wa Helium

Ntabwo ari mu guhaga imipira gusa: Umwuka wa helium unakoreshwa mu bikoresho byo gucisha mu cyuma byo kwa muganga
Image captionNtabwo ari mu guhaga imipira gusa: Umwuka wa helium unakoreshwa mu bikoresho byo gucisha mu cyuma byo kwa muganga

Bishobora kuba igihe kigeze ngo ujye wumva ko ukoze ikintu kidakwiye mu gihe uretse umupira wo mu munsi mukuru ugatumbagira mu kirere.

Umwuka wa helium na wo ni umwuka ushobora gushiraho, uvonwa hasi mu butaka, kandi ubu hasigaye imyaka ibarirwa muri za mirongo ngo uwodufite ushireho.

Ibigereranyo bimwe biteganya ko nko mu myaka nka 30 cyangwa 50 iri imbere, ari bwo ibura ryawo rizaba ritangiye kwigaragaza.

Mu gihe ibyo bishobora kumvikana nkaho bizabishya iminsi mikuru y’abana gusa, umwuka wa helium ni ingenzi mu buvuzi: ukonjesha ibice (‘magnets’) bituma gucishwa mu cyuma bishoboka.

Ibi byateje imbere uburyo bwo gupima no kuvura indwara ya kanseri, ndetse n’ibikomere byo mu bwonko n’ibyo ku ruti rw’umugongo.

4. Imineke

Imineke itanditswe ku gatara ku isoko
Image captionUshobora gutekereza ku kubaho mu gihe nta mineke izaba iriho?

Ibyago byacu bitari kure bishobora gutangira kutugeraho mu ibura rya bimwe mu mvange y’imbuto!

Nyinshi mu nsina z’imineke zeraho imineke igurishwa muri iki gihe, zifite ibyago byo kwibasirwa n’indwara izwi nka ‘Panama disease’.

Insina z’amoko anyuranye zitanga imineke ziri kwibasirwa n’indwara zikomeye, abahinzi b’insina mu karere kacu n’ubu baracyatinya indwara ya ‘kirabiranya’ igera mu nsina ikararika.

Indwara ya ‘Panama disease’ nayo yibasiye insina zera ibitoki bivamo imineke benshi ku isi barya ya ‘Cavendish’ (iyo bamwe bita ‘Gros Michel’).

Ibi bituma abahinga urutoki bava ku nsina z’imineke yo muri ubu bwoko bitabira guhinga izo mu bwoko bwa kamaramasenge, nkuko zimenyerewe mu Kinyarwanda.

Abashakashatsi bavuga ko bari gushaka izindi mbuto nshya zishobora guhangana n’iyo ndwara, ariko ntizibuze iyo mineke ya kamaramasenge kugumana icyanga cyayo kiryohereye.

5. Ubutaka

Abagore babiri bari guhinga muri Afurika
Image captionUba ucyeneye gusukira ibihingwa

Nubwo ubutaka bwacu butazagira gutya ngo burigite giturumbuka buve ku isi, twabukoresheje nabi mu buryo buteye impungenge.

Ubutaka bwo ku gice cyo hejuru cyane, ni bwo ibihingwa bikuramo byinshi mu bibitunga biba bikeneye mu mikurire yabyo.

Ikigo WWF – umuryango utegamiye kuri leta uharanira kubungabunga ubuzima bwo mu gasozi – kigereranya ko uburenga kimwe cya kabiri cy’ubwo butaka bwo hejuru bwazimiye ku isi mu myaka 150 ishize.

Nyamara icyo kigo kikavuga ko byafata imyaka igera kuri 500 ngo ubutaka bureshya na santimetero 2.5 bwikore – bwiremareme – mu buryo bwabwo bwa kamere.

Isuri, guhinga cyane ubutaka butaruhurwa cyangwa ngo burazwe, gutema amashyamba ndetse n’ukwiyongera k’ubushyuhe ku isi, byose byibazwa ko bigira uruhare mu izimira ry’ubwo butaka, ari bwo byinshi mu bihingwa byo ku isi byera ibidutunga bishingiraho.

6. Umwuka wa Phosphorus

Imyambi iri gucanirwa ahantu hari umwijima
Image captionUshobora no kunanirwa kurasa umwambi wo mu kibiriti mu gihe kitari kure kiri imbere, mu gihe iki kinyabutabire – kiri mu ngano ishobora gushiraho – cyaba kitakiriho

Ntabwo ushobora guhita wiyumvisha ukuntu ikinyabutabire cya phosphorous (phosphore) kigaruka kenshi mu buzima bwacu bwa buri munsi.

Ariko ntabwo tugikeneye gusa kubera imiterere y’ingirabuzima-fatizo (DNA) za muntu, ahubwo kinagize igice cy’ingenzi cy’ifumbire ikoreshwa mu buhinzi kuri ubu idafite ikintu kindi kizwi cyayisimbura.

Aho gusubira mu butaka kiba cyavuyemo – kikaba cyabusubiramo kinyuze mu bimera no mu myanda y’inyamaswa.

Ubu akenshi ikinyabutabire cya phosphorus gitemberera mu mijyi kinyuze mu bihingwa, bikarangira gikumunzuriwe mu nyanja hamwe n’indi myanda kinyuze mu buryo bwo kumena imyanda bwo mu mijyi dutuyemo.

Mu gihe ibintu bikomeje kwiyongera nkuko bimeze kuri ubu, hagereranywa ko aho dukura iki kinyabutabire cya phosphorus kuri ubu hazamara imyaka iri hagati ya 35 na 400 – nyuma y’icyo gihe tukazisanga dushonje.

Ibi byose rero biri kugenda bishira ku isi kdi b ifitiye isi akamaro ndetse n’abayituye byerekana ko nayo iri mu marembera.


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